What is Gingivostomatitis?
Gingivostomatitis is the initial manifestation of a herpes virus infection of the mouth. It usually happens in children less than 5 years old and is characterized by painful, small ulcers on the gums and inner lining of the mouth including the cheeks, tongue, and palate.
Usually, before the lesions appear a child might have 3-4 days of fever, fussiness, headache and disrupted sleep.
Symptoms once the lesions emerge can include:
- Bleeding gums
- Bad breath
- Refusal to eat and drink
After the lesions get better, the virus continues to live in the nerves surrounding the face and can emerge later during periods of stress, illness, or sun exposure as ‘cold sores.’
Gingivostomatitis Diagnosis & Treatment
Gingivostomatitis is diagnosed based on medical history and physical exam. Sometimes some of the fluid from one of the lesions can be sent for a culture to confirm the diagnosis.
Usually herpes gingivostomatitis can be managed supportively:
- Encourage hydration
- Pain control with tylenol and ibuprofen
- Give your child cold foods like popsicles or ice cream
- Magic mouthwash (maalox, benedryl, viscous lidocaine) is not routinely recommended because it has not been proven to be effective and ingestion of lidocaine can be toxic. Ask if this is appropriate to try this in your child.
Depending on how your child is doing with these supportive measures, your child’s provider might choose to use an antiviral medication. These medications are most effective when given as early in the course of disease as possible.
The most common reason for hospitalization is dehydration. Signs of dehydration include:
- urinating less
- dry mouth
- very fussy or sleepy
- marked decrease in activity
- few or no tears when crying
- wrinkled skin
- sunken eyes
Check in With K If…
- You have general questions about your child’s condition
- You want general followup for your child
- You have questions about supportive care
- Your child’s symptoms don’t go away after treatment but are not alarming
See a Doctor in Person If…
- Your child has a fever for greater than 7 days
- If the rash spreads and worsens
- Your child cannot drink because of mouth pain
- Your child seems lethargic or unusual tired
- If your child is immunocompromised
- If the lesions spread to the eye