Many of us are too familiar with the discomfort and pain of a sunburn.
So when you’re experiencing a burning sensation in your back and you haven’t lied on your stomach in the sun for hours, it’s important to figure out what’s going on.
In some cases, burning back pain may signal a serious condition, infection, or disease that requires immediate medical attention.
In this article, I’ll dive into the associated symptoms and potential causes of burning back pain.
Then I’ll explain how to treat and manage the pain at home.
I’ll also detail what signs and symptoms should prompt you to see a doctor.
Common symptoms associated with burning back pain include:
- Prickling sensation
- Heightened sensitivity
- Peeling skin
- Muscle ache
- Pain under the skin
Burning back pain can be caused by a variety of conditions, infections, and diseases.
Pinpointing the exact culprit is important—especially if it’s a serious medical problem—so you can begin the proper treatment as soon as possible.
In addition to a burning sensation, other symptoms may include redness, blistering, swollen skin, fever, nausea, and fatigue.
Minor sunburns usually resolve in 3-5 days.
To help alleviate symptoms, try taking aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil), drinking a lot of water, avoiding further sun exposure, taking cold baths, or applying cool wet cloths, aloe, moisturizer, or 1% hydrocortisone cream to the skin.
If you have a severe sunburn on your back that causes blistering, dehydration, a high fever, or severe pain that lasts longer than 48 hours, seek medical attention.
If the skin on your burning back is swollen, red, and tender, you may have an infection.
Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection that can occur when bacteria enter the skin through a cut or break.
In rare cases, cellulitis can spread to the bloodstream and lymph nodes, becoming life-threatening, so see your doctor, who can prescribe antibiotics to treat the infection.
Burning back pain can be a sign of nerve pain (or neuropathic pain), which occurs when there is damage or irritation to a nerve.
The following diseases and conditions can affect the nerves and can lead to burning back pain:
The spine is made up of 24 small bones called vertebrae that are stacked on top of each other.
A round disc located between each vertebra acts as a cushion, helping to absorb shock and pressure and prevent bones from rubbing against each other.
If the outer layer of a disc is damaged, some of the soft center can get pushed out into the spinal canal.
Called a herniated disc, this can cause excessive pressure on the spinal cord and nerves, and result in severe back pain.
Herniated discs commonly occur in the lower back (lumbar spine).
However, if one does occur in the upper back (thoracic spine), it can be more serious since there is not much room in that part of the spine. It can also put too much pressure on the spinal cord.
Excessive pressure on the spinal cord from a herniated disc can lead to paralysis.
A herniated disc does not usually require surgery. In some cases, mediation and physical therapy may help relieve the pain.
Sciatica (also known as lumbar radiculopathy) occurs when a nerve gets pinched, causing pain that radiates along the sciatica nerve, which runs from the lower back to the hips and buttocks and down to each leg.
About 90% of sciatica cases are caused by a herniated disc compressing the nerve root (where the nerve branches off the spinal cord).
Pain varies by person, but it can range from a sharp, burning sensation to extreme pain.
Some people also experience numbness, tingling, or muscle weakness in the leg or foot.
Medication, physical therapy, and steroid injections can help manage sciatica.
Like lumbar radiculopathy, lumbar radiculitis typically results from a herniated disc.
It affects lower spine nerves, causing burning back pain that can radiate to the buttocks and legs.
As with sciatica, different medications, steroid injections, and physical therapy can help treat lumbar radiculitis.
Every year, an estimated 1 million people in the U.S. get shingles (also called herpes zoster).
This viral infection causes a painful rash on one side of the body or face. Shingles is caused by the same virus as chickenpox (varicella-zoster virus).
If you’ve had chickenpox, the virus can remain dormant in your body and later reactive, causing shingles.
While children can get shingles, it’s most common in people older than 50.
Symptoms of shingles include burning pain, numbness, tingling, a red rash, itching, blisters that break open, and sensitivity to touch.
While there’s no cure for shingles, antiviral medications may help the infection clear sooner.
And oral, topical, and injected medications may help alleviate some of the pain of shingles.
Fibromyalgia is a long-term condition that causes widespread pain in the body, often in the back, arms, legs, head, chest, abdomen, and buttocks.
In addition to burning or aching pain, fibromyalgia can also cause sleep problems, emotional and mental distress, fatigue, numbness in the arms and legs, and bloating and constipation.
Although it’s chronic, lifestyle changes such as physical activity and stress management, as well as OTC or prescription pain medication, can help manage fibromyalgia.
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system. With MS, the immune system mistakenly targets the protective layer (myelin) covering nerve fibers.
This damage disrupts communication between the brain and the body.
Over time, the disease can permanently damage or deteriorate nerves.
Symptoms of MS vary depending on which nerve fibers the immune system attacks.
Common symptoms include a squeezing sensation in the torso, muscle spasms, difficulty walking, cognitive challenges, numbness or tingling in any part of the body, and neuropathic pain.
This pain can feel like burning, stabbing, or sharp sensations.
There is no cure for MS. However, a combination of medication, rehabilitation, and mental health care can help people with MS live fulfilling lives.
While proper treatment for back pain depends on what’s causing it, often you can help alleviate and manage the pain at home by:
- Applying ice to inflamed areas for 10-15 minutes up to three times a day.
- Using heat for more chronic pain. Apply for 15-20 minutes at a time.
- Modifying activity that makes the pain feel worse.
- Taking over-the-counter (OTC) anti-inflammatory medication, as directed by your doctor.
When to See a Medical Provider
Burning pain may be a sign of a serious nerve problem.
See your doctor if you’re experiencing other symptoms such as:
- Numbness, tingling, or muscle weakness in the leg or foot
- Lower back pain that radiates to the buttocks and down a leg
- Fever, chills, or fatigue
The following skin symptoms may also be a sign of a serious medical condition that requires immediate medical attention:
- Rashes from a tick bite
- Swollen, red, or itchy skin
- Fluid-like blisters on one side of the body or face
- Extreme sensitivity to pain
- Blistering, high fever, or dehydration from severe sunburn
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Frequently Asked Questions
K Health has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references.
Cellulitis: All You Need to Know. (2020).
Diagnosis and Treatment of Sciatica. (2007).
Herniated Disc. (n.d.).
Lyme Disease. (2021).
Multiple Sclerosis. (2021).
Overview of Low Back Pain. (2003).
Pain and Itching. (n.d.).
Spinal Stenosis. (2020).
Spinal Stenosis. (n.d.).
Sun Exposure - Sunburn. (2018).
Skin Infections. (2020).