When you’re experiencing food poisoning, you often wait for it to pass—waiting as your body fights off the harmful bacteria, parasite, or virus.
Food poisoning will often resolve on its own, but symptoms can last for up to a few days.
In this article, I will discuss the different types of food poisoning and their incubation periods, so you know what to expect should you find yourself with a bout of food poisoning.
I’ll also offer some ways to avoid future bouts of food poisoning, and some advice on when you should talk to a doctor.
How Long Does Food Poisoning Last?
Food poisoning symptoms can last a few hours to a few days.
How long food poisoning lasts depends on which microorganism infected you.
After you ingest contaminated food or beverage, it may take hours or days until you develop symptoms.
Here are some time frames for common causes of food poisoning.
- Staphylococcus aureus (Staph): Symptoms begin within 30 minutes to 8 hours after exposure and usually last no longer than one day.
- Salmonella: Symptoms begin 6 hours to 6 days after exposure and last 4-7 days.
- Norovirus: Symptoms begin 12 to 48 hours after exposure and last 1-2 days.
- E.Coli: Symptoms begin 3-4 days after exposure and last 5-10 days.
- Listeria: Symptoms begin within 2 weeks after exposure and last 1-3 days.
Food Poisoning Incubation Time
Food poisoning symptoms can set in anywhere from a few hours to a few weeks after eating contaminated food, depending on the type of illness you’re experiencing.
Bacterial food poisoning is the most common type of foodborne illness in the United States.
Symptoms usually set in 8-48 hours after exposure.
The recovery time for a bacterial foodborne illness is 24 hours to 7 days. Some common bacterial foodborne illnesses come from E. coli bacteria (Escherichia coli), listeria bacteria, clostridium perfringens, and salmonella.
Symptoms of parasitic food poisoning, like giardia, generally last 2-6 weeks.
Symptoms normally start 1-2 weeks after exposure.
The state of an individual’s immune system, their age, and preexisting conditions may affect how long parasitic food poisoning lasts.
Viral food poisoning incubation periods can vary depending on the type of virus you have been contracted.
Norovirus generally lasts from 1-3 days. Hepatitis A, another type of viral infection, can last up to 6 months, but people generally only present symptoms for a few weeks.
How to Prevent Food Poisoning
The best ways to prevent food poisoning is to practice food safety in the kitchen, while dining out, and when traveling in a foreign country.
- Wash your hands: Use soap, and wash your hands thoroughly and often. Also wash between cooking different dishes.
- Clean utensils and kitchen surfaces: Wash these when you’re cooking, and between preparing different dishes to prevent cross-contamination.
- Keep produce and meat separate: Doing so on the cutting board and when preparing food can prevent cross-contamination.
- Ensure food is cooked through: Thoroughly cooking food can kill germs that may cause foodborne illnesses. When preparing raw meat, use a thermometer to track the internal temperature.
- Refrigerate leftovers within two hours: This can prevent spoilage.
- Thaw food in the refrigerator: Don’t thaw food in the sink or on the counter; thaw it in the refrigerator, and cook immediately upon defrosting.
- Dispose of food you’re not sure about: If you don’t know if food has been stored properly or how it was prepared, be safe and throw it away. Even if it smells and looks fine, it may not be completely safe to eat.
- Check expiration dates: Be sure food is not expired to avoid foodborne illness.
Food poisoning is any of more than any 250 foodborne illnesses caused by eating contaminated food.
The most common food poisoning pathogens are bacterial, viral, parasitic, or toxins.
Symptoms can vary depending on the type of food poisoning you’re experiencing.
But common symptoms of food poisoning include the following:
- Upset stomach
- Stomach cramps and abdominal pain
- Diarrhea (sometimes bloody diarrhea)
There are several germs that can cause food poisoning if you are exposed to them.
Some common types of bacteria include staphylococcus aureus (staph infections), vibrio, clostridium perfringens, salmonella, norovirus, botulism, listeria, and E. coli.
These can be found on a variety of foods and food sources, but some common culprits include:
- Raw and undercooked meats
- Unpasteurized (raw) milk and dairy products
- Unwashed leafy greens and fresh fruits
- Improperly stored or canned foods
- Contaminated water
- Food that is handled in an unsafe way by a sick individual
- Food that has been cross-contaminated by raw or other contaminated foods
Those with otherwise healthy immune systems will generally recover from food poisoning without formal treatment.
But depending on the severity of symptoms and type of illness, certain treatments can help.
One of the most common side effects of food poisoning symptoms is dehydration, so when treating food poisoning, it’s important to drink plenty of fluids.
Use oral rehydration solutions and electrolyte solutions to replenish the body if necessary.
In severe cases, IV fluids may need to be administered. Signs of dehydration include dry mouth and eyes, lightheadedness, and dark-colored urine with a strong smell.
In certain cases of food poisoning and for certain symptoms, your doctor might prescribe antibiotics.
For example, food poisoning caused by listeria may need IV treatment in the hospital.
Certain over-the-counter medications can be used for nausea and vomiting if needed.
When recovering from food poisoning, it’s best to eat bland foods or those that follow the BRAT diet, which consists of bananas, rice, apples, and toast.
Foods like ginger and ginger ale can also help calm your stomach and nausea.
Avoid spicy foods, caffeine, and alcohol, which can all disturb the stomach and cause gastrointestinal symptoms.
When To See a Medical Provider
In rare cases, symptoms can become severe and life-threatening.
If you experience any of the following severe symptoms, you must see a doctor or healthcare provider as soon as possible:
- Blood diarrhea or diarrhea that lasts more than three days
- High fever (above 102°F)
- Inability to keep liquids down
- Frequent vomiting, causing dehydration
Individuals who are immunocompromised, those with preexisting health conditions, and pregnant women are at risk of complications of food poisoning.
In severe cases, food poisoning can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or premature delivery in pregnant women.
If you are pregnant and suspect food poisoning, it is best to seek medical attention.
In severe cases of food poisoning, individuals have been hospitalized, and untreated illnesses can lead to long-term health problems, including brain and nerve damage, kidney disease and failure by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), as well as arthritis.
How K Health Can Help
Food poisoning usually goes away on its own. But if you have a worrying case of foodborne illness, a healthcare provider can tell you if it’s something to worry about, or if the illness will go away on its own.
Did you know you can access online urgent care with K Health?
Check your symptoms, explore conditions and treatments, and if needed, text with a healthcare provider in minutes.
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Frequently Asked Questions
K Health articles are all written and reviewed by MDs, PhDs, NPs, or PharmDs and are for informational purposes only. This information does not constitute and should not be relied on for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment.
K Health has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references.
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